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About the B45 Personality Assessment

Scientific Backing & Statistical Validation

For those interested in the scientific and technical backing supporting this model, here is where you can find more information.


Our model is based on “The Big-Five”. You can read about the Big-Five here on Wikipedia. This model is arguably the most robust, academically-researched, defended, peer-reviewed, and statistically validated personality type model in the world.

Factor Markers

The factor markers we use for the Big-Five were developed by Dr. L. R. Goldberg and applied with the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). You can visit this website to understand the research behind these markers.


Below is a list of enhancements and revisions that differentiate the B45 Personality Assessment from others that leverage The Big Five and IPIP.


We apply the same traits as The Big-Five. These are, in Big-Five terminology: Openness to Experience sometimes referred to as Intellect or Imagination (Curious vs. Cautious), Conscientiousness (Efficient vs. Extravagant), Extraversion (Energetic vs. Reserved), Agreeableness (Friendly vs. Critical), and Neuroticism (Sensitive vs. Resilient).

The negative perception of “Neuroticism” (sometimes referred to “Emotional Stability”) we felt imbalanced respondents’ likelihood to support or accept any ratings to the left of that scale. Therefore, we replace the term “Neuroticism” with “Sensitivity”.

Where the Big-Five has been referred to as the OCEAN model for its acronym, our B45 model may be referred to as I-CASE.

To enable a clarity of Summary Types (see below), we adapted the left side terminology as follows:

  • For the Primary Trait Sensitivity, we apply KEEN to replace SENSITIVE.
  • For the Primary Trait Conscientiousness, we apply ABUNDANT to replace EXTRAVAGANT
  • For the Primary Trait Imagination, we apply the PRUDENT to replace CAUTIOUS

Summary Types

By adapting the supporting traits above, we enable the identification of each individual’s type, in a manner similar to the popularity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, while retaining the scientific background and statistical foundations for the Big-Five. For example, a person who is Curious (Imagination Trait), Efficient (Conscientiousness Trait), Friendly (Agreeableness Trait), Resilient (Sensitivity Trait), and Outgoing (Extraversion Trait), would be a type CEFRO. In contrast, someone who is Prudent, Abundant, Critical, Keen, and Solitary, would be type PACKS.


A common critique of most personality assessments is the lack of range in their scoring models. Most base their scoring on a scale of 1 to 5. This unnecessarily limits the range across which participants may land. To address this weakness, we use a sliding scale from 1 to 100.


In The Big-Five model, the 1 to 5 scale may have been something like Curious (left side of scale) to Cautious (right side of scale) for a trait – in this case, Openness to Experience. For some traits, we reversed the scale. For example, with Openness to Experience, the B45 scale is reversed, with Cautious on the Left side of the scale and Curious on the Right.

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